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Overcome the embedded CPU performance hurdle

12 Apr 2013  | Julio Diez

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The voltage VT is the thermal voltage, that depends on the absolute temperature T; k is the Boltzmann constant and q is the electrical charge on an electron. At usual temperatures the thermal voltage value is around 30 mV. For large values of threshold voltages compared to the thermal voltage the effect on leakage current is negligible, but for small ones, around 100mV, the effect becomes relevant.

Moreover, it is not only the thermal voltage dependent on temperature, threshold voltage usually also varies with temperature and both variations are added together on their effect on leakage current. The increase on leakage current implies increase on static power consumption so this imposes a practical limit on the voltage reduction technique for low values.

Figure 3 shows these effects for two different temperatures. The first curve with T=300K is the presented exponential equation on threshold voltage. The second curve with T=330K is an estimation taking into account variation on threshold voltage as a result of incrementing temperature. In this way, the abscissa still represents nominal threshold voltage but real threshold voltage on the transistor is biased towards lower values by the effect of temperature, thus having a higher effect on leakage current.

Leakage current also depends on gate insulator thickness. With very thin gate dielectrics, electrons can tunnel across the insulation generating tunnelling currents and leading to high power consumption. This effect is very important in current semiconductor technology processes given the actual sizes in use of 32nm and below for gate lengths.

Figure 3: Effect of threshold voltage and temperature on leakage current.


Of course, the core of a processor is not the only component on a chip that consumes energy. Memories, for example, also consume a considerable amount of energy and modern processors dedicate a large area of the die to incorporate several levels of cache memory.

Engineers apply several design techniques to reduce leakage current or the activity factor of the memory (the A factor in the power dissipation equation shown) and in this way they mitigate power consumption.

For example, the hierarchical organisation in levels of cache not only improves data access time, it also helps in reducing power consumed, since smaller, nearer caches require less energy than larger, further ones. With this organisational solution it is possible to reduce power while preserving performance. In line with this idea, another commonly used solution is to organise memory into banks for efficiency. In this case it is possible to activate only the bank being accessed and thereby save energy.

However, looking for higher performance is not always the right thing to do. Sometimes it is adequate to reduce power at the cost of some throughput. There are processors dedicated to specific applications that are always doing the same kind of calculations, for example DSPs. Audio processing, digital filters, or data compression algorithms are typical applications on these devices, where assessments are characterized by how much energy an operation requires and how long it takes for these processors to make such calculations.

A processor that initially takes more time than another executing an algorithm but that consumes less power can, in the end, be more energy efficient. A metric employed for measuring this efficiency is MIPS/W (Million Instructions Per Second-per-Watt). Although metric MIPS has to be taken with care, in general devices with higher MIPS/W are considered more efficient and this is especially interesting for embedded devices, particularly battery-powered devices. Indeed, at this time there is increasing interest and pressure to have energy efficient processors in the world of servers and data centres.


Transmission delays on a chip
The other main factor limiting increasing density of transistors and frequency on a chip is wire transmission delays. The very high frequencies on the order of gigahertz used in modern processors means that a clock cycle occurs every fraction of a nanosecond. This small cycle time is becoming a problem for signal propagation.

Reducing feature size on a chip has enabled a decrease in gate length and capacitance on transistors and so increases clock rates, overcoming capacity bound constraints. But wires on a chip are becoming slower due to higher resistance and capacitance. The width and height of wires now are smaller and this results in higher resistance due to a smaller wire area.

With smaller area and hence less wire surface, surface-related capacitance decreases but the distance between neighbouring wires is also being reduced and this produces a higher coupling capacitance. Coupling capacitance increases at a faster pace than surface capacitance decreases, thus counteracting its effect and producing a combined effect of higher overall wire capacitance.

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