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Detecting voltage drop, electromigration issues

12 Dec 2014  | Priya Khandelwal, Ateet Mishra, Jatinder kumar

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2. Delay Arrival Filter: Using the above information, all clock cells which are coming in common min-max timing window are filtered under one collection. These cells are then marked as EM affected cells until they are filtered further in next few steps. Figure 3 shows that out of 10 clock elements checked, few are coming in common timing windows. There are 4 individual collection which are EM prone.

 Common timing windows

Figure 3: Out of 10 clock elements checked, few are coming in common timing windows.

3. Distance Filter: This filter is a procedure that will identify whether the probable EM affected cells are physically sitting in close proximity or not. It will use below 2 filters, named X-filter and Y-filter.
a) X-Axis Filter: It will filter out cells with X- co-ordinate of cell location with user specified range. Considering the x-coordinate, the list of EM prone cells further reduced as, {1,2} and { 7,8,9} as they are coming in close proximity on X-Axis.

 X-Axis Filter

Figure 4: X-Axis Filter.

b) Y-Axis Filter: Similar to above, the list will further be filtered to get cells sitting in close proximity on Y-coordinates. Now on over lapping with Y-coordinates EM prone cells are further filtered to:
{1, 2} & {7, 9}

 Y-Axis Filter

Figure 5: Y-Axis Filter.

This way, cells with delay arrival window with respect to each clock source, and sitting in close proximity are identified, which are most probable candidates for EM troubles.

Using such procedures, these cells are identified at the clock tree stage itself. Any movement of such cells to avoid this can be done right away, which otherwise, when done later, could cause many timing violations.

About the authors
Priya Khandelwal, Ateet Mishra and Jatinder Kumar contributed this article.

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